Sunday, January 11, 2009

Chronology of Palestinian History


Following is a compiled chronology of Palestinian history from early stages till the beginning of the current occupation. This chronology (up to 1949) is summarized from the well-known reference All That Remains (ed. Walid Khalidi). The historical events beyond 1949 are taken from the PASSIA diary (year 2000 issue).
The original copy of this page stopped at 1914 - World War I.

I. B.C.

600,000 - 10,000
Paleolithic and Mesolithic period. Earliest human remains in the area (found south of the Lake of Tabariyya), date back to ca. 600,000 BC.
10,000 - 5,000
Neolithic period. Establishment of settled agricultural communities.
5,000 - 3,000
Chalcolithic period. Copper and stone tools and artifacts from this period found near Jericho, Bi'r As-Sabi' and the Dead Sea.
3,000 - 2,000
Early Bronze Age.Arrival and settlement of the Canaanites (3,000 - 2,500 BC)
ca. 1,250
Israelite conquest of Canaan.
965 - 928
King Solomon (Sulayman), construction of the temple in Jerusalem.
Division of the Israelite state into the kingdom of Israel and Judah.
Assyrian conquest of the kingdom of Israel.
Judah defeated by Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar, deportation of its population to Babylon and destruction of the temple.
Persians conquer Babylonia, allowance of deportees to return and construction of a new temple.
Alexander the Great conquers Persia and Palestine comes under the Greek rule.
Alexander the Great dies, alternate rule by Ptolemies of Egypt and Seleucids of Syria.
Maccabees revolt against the Seleucid ruler (Antiochus Epiphanes) and establish an independent state.
Incorporation of Palestine into the Roman Empire.

II. A.D.

Destruction of the second temple by the Roman Emperor Titus.
Suppression of the Bar Kokhba revolt. Jews barred from Jerusalem and Emperor Hadrian builds a pagan city on its ruins.
Palestine under Byzantine rule, Christianity spreads.
Omar ibn al-Khattaab enters Jerusalem and ends the Byzantine rule.
Palestine administered by the Umayyad chaliphs from Damascus and construct the Dome of the Rock ('Abd al-Malik, 685-705) and Al-Aqsa in its current shape (al-Walid, 705-715).
Palestine administered from Baghdad by the'Abbasid caliphs.
Palestine administered by the Fatimids from Egypt as rivals to Baghdad.
Saljuqs (originally from Isfahan) rule Jerusalem and parts of Palestine (officially still under the 'Abbasids).
The Crusaders arrive and establish the "Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem".
Salah al-Diin al-Ayyoubi (from Kurdistan) conquers the crusaders in the battle of Hittin, kicks them back to Europe and frees Jerusalem. Palestine administered from Cairo.
The Mamluks succeed the Ayyubis, continue to administer Palestine from Cairo and kick the Mongols in the battle of 'Ayn Jaluut near An-Nasira.
The Mamluks (Khalil bin Qalawuun) conquer the last crusader stronghold in Akka and Qisariya.
Palestine incorporated into the Ottoman state and administered from Istanbul.
Moh'd Ali Pasha (Egypt) rules Palestine, Ottomans take over afterwards.
First Palestinian deputies from Jerusalem attend the first Ottoman parliament.
First Zionist settlement (Petach Tiqva) established under the guise of agricultural community.
First wave of Zionists (25000 strong) enters Palestine as illegal immigrants from Eastern Europe.
French Baron E. de Rothschild starts backing Zionists activities in Palestine financially.
1887-1888 Ottomans divide Palestine into three districts: Jerusalem (follows Istanbul) , Akka and Nablus (follow the 'wilaya' of Beirut).
Theodor Hertzl, a journalist from an Austro-Hungarian origin published Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State) advocating the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine or elsewhere.
JCA (Jewish Colonization Association) starts aiding Zionist settlements in Palestine.
First Zionist congress in Switzerland issues the Basle Program "calling for a home for the Jewish people in Palestine" and establishes the WZO (World Zionist Organization to that end.
JNF (Jewish National Fund) set up by the 5th Zionist congress to acquire land (in Palestine) and 'make it Jewish'.
Second wave (around 40000 strong) of Zionist illegal immigrants arrive in Palestine and increase the Jewish percentage to 6% of the total population.
First Zionist Kibbutz (collective farm), establishment of Tel Aviv north of Yaafa.
World War I starts.
Note: what follows is translation from the Arabic version of the book.
- January: Hussein-McMahon talks regarding steps leading to Arab countries/provinces' independence from the Ottoman empire.
- May: The signing of the Sykes-Picot agreement dividing Arab countries/provinces between Britain and France!
- June: Sharif Hussein declares independence from Ottoman Empire and the start of Arab revolt against Istanbul.
- November: The Balfour declaration - UK foreign minister declares support towards establishing a Jewish state in Palestine.
- September: British forces, led by Gen. Allenby, occupy Palestine
- October: World War I ends.
- Jan-Feb: first Palestinian National Conference in Jerusalem rejects Balfour declaration and calls (with letters to the Paris peace conference) for independence.
- August: Paris peace conference sends investigation committee to the Near East. UK and France did not participate. Committee recommends modification of Balfour ideas.
1919- 1923
- Third wave of Zionist-Jewish immigrants (around 35000) raising their percentage in Palestine to 12%, with land ownership at 3%.
- April: disturbances start in Palestine. Five Jewish people killed and 200 injured. UK investigates and attributes causes to broken promises and fears of new waves of immigrants.
- April: Peace conference higher council in San Rimo places Palestine under British mandate
- May: British occupation prevents the second Palestinian National Council (PNC) from convening
- July: Sir H. Samuel (British Jew) opens British civil administration in Palestine.
- December: third PNC convenes in Haifa, elects executive committee that steers Palestinian political movement till 1935
- March: formation of the Haganah, Jewish underground terror organization
- May: Disturbances in Haifa protesting Zionist waves of immigration leading, among casualties, to 46 Jewish immigrants. The British investigate, found as before.
- May: Haj Amin al-Husseini appointed a mufti for Jerusalem
- May-June: fourth PNC convenes in Jerusalem, sends a mission to London to explain position
- June: British minister for colonies (W. Churchill) publishes the white paper excluding East of Jordan river from the Balfour declaration and calls for organizing Zionist immigration according to economic capacity of Palestine.
- July: League of Nations approves British mandate over Palestine
- August: 5th PNC approves economic boycott of the Zionists.
- October: 1st British census in Palestine found total population to be 757182 , 78% of whom were Muslim Arabs, 9.6 Christian Arabs and 11 % Jewish (mainly new immigrants)
- September: British mandate officially begins
4th wave of Zionist immigrants (67000) arrives (50% of whom were from Polonia). This increases Jewish percentage to 16%, with land ownership up to 4.2 % in 1928).
- Vladimir Jabutinsky's Zionist party calls for the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine and east of the River Jordan. Stresses the military aspects of Zionism.
- October: 6th PNC convenes in haifa
- June: 7th PNC convenes in Jerusalem
- August: clashes over the Western (Alburaq) Wall i Jerusalem. Clashes led to 116 killed and 232 wounded among Palestinians (mainly by British fire) and 133 dead and 339 wounded among the Jewish side.
- October: General Palestinian Conference convenes in Jerusalem to discuss the situation around the Western (Alburaq) Wall
5th Zionist immigration wave brings 250000 immigrants raising their percentage to 30% and their land ownership to 5.7 %.
- January: League of Nations forms an international committee to investigate the legal situation over the Jerusalem Wall.
- March: the British Shaw committee releases findings in the 1929 clashes.
- October: The Hope-Simpson report on immigration finds no enough resources for Zionist waves of immigration. UK colonies' minister issues a white paper incorporating findings of Shaw and H-S.
- Irgon, another Jewish terrorist organization, formed by Zionist extremists and those who split from Haganah. Led by Vladimir Jabutinsky.
- February: British PM, R MacDonald, retracts from the white paper of October 1930, in a letter to H. Weissman, the Zionist leader.
- November: 2nd British census in Palestine finds 1,035,154 people. 73% Muslim Arabs, 8.6% Christian Arabs and 16.9% Jewish (mainly immigrants).
- December: L French, UK development director, publishes a report about Palestinian Arabs who lost their land thanks to Zionist settlements.
-UK foreign minister issues a report concerning the need to re-settle Palestinian farmers who were expelled from their lands in favor of Zionist immigrants
- October: Zionist revisionists leave the World Zionist Organization and establish a new one aiming at "liberating" Palestine and East Jordan.
- November: Sh. Izz Eddin al-Qassam leads the first Palestinian unit resisting British policies and dies in a battle with British forces near Jenin.
- April: Palestinian parties for the Arab Higher Committee headed by Haj. Amin Husseini.
- May: Palestinian National Committees conference calls for a stop of tax payment (no taxation without representation). Revolt begins.
August: Fawzi Qawikji, along with 150 volunteers enter Palestine from Lebanon to help fight against the British occupation.
November: British royal committee, headed by Lord peel, arrives in Palestine
- January: Royal committee leaves Palestine
- April: The Irgon, headed by Jabutinsky, re-organizes and calls for start of raids against Palestinians
- July: Peel committee report recommends partitioning Palestine into Jewish state (33%) on best areas and one for Palestinian Arabs in addition to British protectorates including Jerusalem. Reports refers to forced transfer, if needed, of Palestinians from the 'Jewish' part.
- July: Arab Higher Committee rejects the Peel recommendations, calls for Independence of whole Palestine with protection for the rights of all and the British interests. Revolution continues.
- September: Arab National Conference convenes in Bludan Syria). Rejects partition plans, calls for an end to British mandate, Zionist immigration and transfer of land ownership.
- October: British occupation dissolves Arab Higher Committee and the rest of Palestinian political organizations. Five leaders expelled and Haj A. Husseini escapes to Lebanon.
- November: Britain forms court martials to face the Palestinian revolution.
- April - August: Irgon (Jewish underground terror organization) starts offensive against the Palestinians killing 119. Palestinians resist killing 8.
- June: British officer Orde Wingate forms Special Night Units from British soldiers and Irgon terrorists to attack Palestinian villages.
- October: Britain calls reinforcements. Governors replaced by army general to face the revolution.
- October: British forces re-occupy Jerusalem from the Palestinian rebels.
- November: Woodhead technical fact finding committee declares partition plan inappropriate, calls for general conference to be attended by Palestinians, Arabs and Zionists.
- February: London conference convenes
- March: London conference ends. No agreement.
- May: British House of Commons votes in favor of a white paper by minister of colonies M. MacDonald. The paper calls for: conditional independence of a Palestinian state after ten years, acceptance of 15000 Zionist immigrants a year for 5 years, then by Arab agreement. British official sources put the number of Palestinians killed in the revolt at 3500-4000 in addition to 500 Jews/Zionists.
- September 1: World War II begins.
- October: Separatists from the Zionist Irgon organization form the Stern gang headed by Abraham Stern.
- February: Land ownership rules according to British 1939 white paper enforced.
1940 - 1945
- Over 60,000 Zionist/Jewish immigrants enter Palestine (over 20,000 'illegally' as determined by Britain who controlled borders). Jewish/Zionist percentage rises to 31% and land they control to 6%.
- February: Abraham Stern killed by British police
- May: Baltimore conference for Zionist leaders convenes in NY, calls for "making Palestine a Jewish homeland"
- November: Britain extends the five year Zionist influx to exhaust the 75,000 permits according to its 1939 white paper.
- January: Zionist organizations Irgon and Stern unite against the British.
- November: Stern group assassinates Lord Moyne (British minister)
May 8: World War II ends.
- September: Zionist influx resumes, protected by the Haganah (Zionist terror organization).
- November: British foreign minister, E. Bevin, releases a white paper declaring the resumption of Jewish immigration.
- March: Anglo-American committee arrives in Palestine to investigate British white paper of 1945.
- May: Anglo-America committee report indicates 61, 000 - 69,000 armed members in Zionist organizations Stern, Haganah and Irgon; declares special armies illegal, recommends 100,000 more immigrants and the cancellation of land ownership regulations. Palestinians strike in protest.
- June: Arab League convenes in Bludan (Syria), approves 'secret' decisions and warns UK and US that ignoring Palestinian rights will affect their interests in the Arab world.
- July: British white paper on terrorism in Palestine accuses Haganah, Stern and Irgon of 'violence and destruction'.
- July 22: Irgon blows up the King David Hotel in Jerusalem killing 91 people (among them British, Palestinian and Jewish employees of the mandate)
- July: Anglo-American conference convenes in London, suggests a federal plan (M-G) to solve the Palestinian problem. Suggestions rejected by both Zionist and Palestinian leaders.
- January: round table conference re-convenes in London.
- February: British foreign minister, E. Bevin, suggests an amendment to the M-G plan and presents it to London conference. Plan rejected by Arab representatives and Jewish Agency.
- February 18: Bevin announces he'll take the problem of Palestine to the United Nations
- April 28 - May 15: UN General Assembly convenes the Palestine session, forms the 11-member UNSCOP committee
- September 8: UNSCOP report published. Majority of its members suggest partition, minority suggest federal solution.
- September 16-19: Arab League denounces partition, forms a committee to help in Palestinian defense needs
- September 26: Arthur Jones, British minister for colonies, announces Britain's decision to end its mandate over Palestine
- September 29: Arab Higher Committee rejects the partition plan.
- October 2: the Jewish Agency accepts the partition plan.
- October 7 - 15: Arab League convenes in Lebanon, warns of Zionist danger after Mandate and allocates a million Sterling Pounds for Palestine
- October 29: Britain announces departure in 6 months if no solution achieved
- November 27: Arab League Committee head report warns of inability of Palestinians to face the Zionist armies without help and organization.
- November 29: UN general Assembly votes on an amended partition plan calling for a 56.5 % of Palestine for a Jewish state, 43 % for a Palestinian one and internationalization of Jerusalem. Votes were 33 for, 13 against, 10 abstinations. Arab representatives left the meeting.
- November 30: The Haganah calls for Jews aged 17 to 25 to enlist for military service
- December: Arab League establishes the "Arab Salvation Army" from Arab non-regular volunteers, headed by Fawzi Qawikji.
- December 2: Palestinians declare a 3-day strike protesting partition. Disturbances result in killing of 6 Palestinians and 8 Zionists/Jews.
- December 8: Britain presents a recommendation to the UN calling for an end of its mandate on Palestine, immediate formation of a Jewish state and a Palestinian state two weeks after.
- December 8 - 17: Arab League political committee declares partition illegal and decides to supply the League Palestine Committee with rifles and volunteers
- December 15: Britain announces it will hand the admin of Tel Aviv/Petah Tikva to the Jews and Yafa to the Palestinians
- December 17: Jewish Agency executive body announces that American Jews should pay 250 million US$ to help the Zionists in Palestine
- December 21 - March 1948: Zionist organizations Irgon and Haganah start coastal ethnic cleansing of Palestinian villages
- December - January 1948: Arab Higher Committee forms local committees to defend Palestinian villages, towns and localities against Zionist cleansing.
- January: AbdulQadir al-Husseini returns to Palestine from exile and becomes active in resisting the partition
- January 8 - 10: Arab Salvation Army's first unit of 330 fighters arrives in Palestine, meets resistance from both Britain and Zionist organizations
- January 14: The Haganah stockpiles on arms, mainly imported from Czechoslovakia, including artillery, machine guns, ammunition and 25 planes.
- January 16: British report to the UN estimates 1974 killed during the period November 30, 1947 and January 10, 1948
- January 20: Britain says it'll hand over administration according to local majority in each area
- January 21 - 28: an extra 760 volunteers arrive to join Arab Salvation Army (ASA)
- January - March: Jewish National Fund encourages the expulsion of Arabs from Haifa. The Haganah attacks Palestinians near al-Hula lake (north of Tabariyya) and the Palmach (another Zionist armed group) attacks bedouins in An-Naqab.
- February 16: ASA loses near Bisan.
- February 18: The Haganah calls men and women aged 25 - 35 to enlist in 'military service'.
- February 24: UN discusses the situation
- March: East Jordan government head meets UK's Bevin and both agree that East Jordan government forces enter areas allocated to Palestinians (according to partition plan) after the end of Mandate
- March 5 - 7: Qawikji assumes leadership of ASA units in the Jenin-Nablus-Tulkarm triangle 9areas assigned to an Arab state according to partition plan)
- March 6: the Haganah announces general mobilization
- March 10: British House of Commons votes on ending the mandate on May 15. The Haganah drafts "Plan Dalet" (Dalet is Hebrew for D) for military operations in Palestine.
- March 18: American president, Truman, receives Chaim Weizman and promises to support the declaration of the Jewish State on May 15.
- March 19 - 20: USA representative in the Security Council asks it to suspend the partition plan and calls for a General Assembly session to discuss a trusteeship on Palestine. Arabs accepted a limited one with a truce conditioned by Jewish acceptance. The Jewish Agency rejected.
- March 25: Truman calls for an immediate truce, announces willingness to participate in temporary trusteeship
- March 30 - May 15: 2nd coastal cleansing operation by the Haganah against Palestinians between Haifa and Yafa.
- April 1: First arms shipment to Jewish organizations lands in Haifa, more in air cargo. Security Council calls for a General Assembly session according to US suggestion.
- April 4: The Haganah starts executing "Plan Dalet (D)".
- April 4 - 15: Battle of Mishmar Ha 'Emeq. Haganah wins and Palmach occupies villages in the plains of marj bin Aamer
- April 6 - 15: Operation Nachshon (first part of Dalet Plan). Villages and towns on the Jerusalem - Tel Aviv road fell to Haganah.
- April 8: Abdur Qadir Husseini dies in counter offensive to restore al-Qastal (near Jerusalem)
- April 9: Deir Yassin massacre. Irgon and Stern terrorists kill 250 civilians in this village in Jerusalem district
- April 12: General Zionist Council decides to establish an independent state in Palestine on May 16.
- April 20: Operation Hariel of Plan Dalet. Palestinian villages on Jerusalem road targeted and destroyed. Continues till May 15.
- April 15 - May 25: Operation Yiftah captures Safad and uses psychological war to expel Palestinians. Operation Sweeper drives bedouins to Jordan River.
- April 16 - 17: Golani and Palmach units occupy Tabariyya (Tiberias) after British forces leave. Palestinian residents leave.
- April 17: Security Council calls for a military and political truce
- April 20: USA brings its trusteeship proposal to the UN
- April 21: Operation Misparim. British forces leave Haifa, Haganah launches offensive.
- April 22: Local defenders in Haifa lose. Residents leave due to heavy shelling and round offensive.
- April 25: Irgon attacks yafa.
- April 26 - 30: Haganah launches Operation Yabusi on and around Jerusalem and occupies areas there.
- April 27 - May 5: Irgon and Haganah intensifies shelling and ground offensive on Yafa (Operation Hamets) leading to expulsion of 50000
- April 30: Haganah captures all areas of West Jerusalem and expels Palestinians
- May 3: Reports say Zionist attacks left about 175,000 - 200,000 Palestinian refugees
- May 8 - 16: Haganah launches Operation Maccabi capturing villages on the Ramle-LaTrun road
- May 9 - June 1: Operation Barak. Haganah attacks around Ramle
- May 10 - 15: Golani brigade captures Bisan and launches attacks in area
- May 12 - 14: Zionist forces receive more arms shipments arrive from Czechoslovakia
- May 13: ASA and local fighters attack Gush Etsion and captures it in return of Zionists attack on the Hebron road. Yafa surrenders to the Haganah.
- May 13 - 21: Operation Ben Ami. Carmeli brigade captures Akka 9Acre) and coastal areas north of the city
- May 14: Haganah launches offensive on Jerusalem after British forces leave. Some residential areas captured in old city. An Israeli state was declared in Tel Aviv at 4 pm. USA president Truman recognizes the state
- May 15: British mandate ends. Israeli state declaration takes effect.
- May 15 - 17: Lebanese soldiers enter north border, restore 2 villages.
- May 15 - 28: Arab Army (East Jordan) crosses the river and takes positions in Jerusalem, captures areas from the Haganah
- May 15 - June 4: Iraqi units enter Palestine and take position in Jenin-Nablus-Tulkarm triangle. Haganah launches offensive, expel residents of villages on the Jenin road and even occupying Jenin but kicked out on June 3 -4 .
- May 15 - June 7: Egyptian units cross the border and reach Isdod (coastal town). Some volunteers connect with Jordanian units near Bethlehem.
- May 16 - 30: Operation Ben Nun. Zionists fail to capture Latrun to open Jerusalem - Yafa road, but capture neighboring villages
- May 16 - June 10: Syrian units enter from north. Restores a few villages together with Lebanese soldiers
- May 20: Security Council appoints Bernadotte its intermediary in Palestine
- May 22: Security Council issues a resolution calling for a ceasefire
- June 9 - 10: Operation Yuram fails to capture Latrun
- June 11 - July 8: First truce.
- June 28 - 29: Bernadotte suggests a solution between East Jordan and Palestine leading to Arab and Jewish states and allocates each party's share. Both parties rejected it.
- July 7: Security Council calls for an extension of the truce
- July 7 - 18: Operation Dani. Lod and Ramle fall, residents leave. Villages on the Yafa-Jerusalem road fall and a major offensive on Latrun ends with second truce taking effect.
- July 8 - 14: Operations An-Far and Dekel end in capture of areas near Ramle as well as Naasira and al-Jalil al-Asfal (Lower Galilee)
- July 9 - 18: Israeli army fails to restore a settlement from the Syrians
- July 15: Security Council calls concerned governments and authorities to issue a ceasefire and implement it in 3 weeks.
- July 17: Israeli Operation Kedem fails to capture old Jerusalem.
- July 18 - October 15: second truce
- July 24 - 26: Operation Shuteir. Israeli forces attack and capture 3 villages south of Haifa.
- August 16 - early October: expulsion of bedouins from an-Naqab by Negev and Yiftah brigades
- July 24 - 28: Operation Nikayon (cleansing): occupation of areas north of Isdod
- September 16: Bernadotte suggests a new partition of Palestine. An Arab state to join east Jordan (contains An-Naqab, Lod, Ramle), Jewish state in Galilee (al-Jalil), internationalization of Jerusalem, return of refugees or compensation. Arab league and 'Israel' reject.
- September 17: Zionist group, Stern, assassinates Bernadotte.
- October 15 - November 9: Operations Yuav and Hahar. Occupation of Bi'r as-Sabi', Majdal, Isdod, coastal areas and villages near Hebron.
- October 29 - 31: Operation Hiram. Capture of Jalil al-A'ala (Upper Galilee) and advance toward Litani river in Lebanon
- November 4: security Council resolution calls for withdrawal to the prior October 14 positions and establishment of permanent truce lines
- November - Mid 1949: Israeli forces expel villagers from a stretch 5 - 15 Km deep in Lebanon as well as residents of al-Jalil.
- December 22 - January 6, 1949: Operation Horef against Egyptian forces. Occupation of many towns and villages, advancement into Sinai followed by withdrawal and ceasefire on December 7 with forces on the outskirts of Rafah
- December 27: an attack on Egyptian forces fail.
- February 24: Israeli-Egyptian truce. Egyptian forces leave Faluje and keeps gaza-Rafah strip.
- February (end): Israeli army expels Faluje residents in violation of truce.
- March: Israeli forces complete occupation of An-Naqab and reach Aqaba.
- March 23: Israeli-Lebanese truce. Israeli forces withdraw from most Lebanese areas.
- April 3: Israeli-Jordanian truce. Jordan keeps Nablus, Jenin and Tulkarm but leaves Wadi Ara. Both accept status quo in Jerusalem.
- July 20: Israeli-Syrian truce. Demilitarized area between them.
Events that follow are taken from the PASSIA diary:
UN Conciliation Commission for Palestine established; UNRWA founded; UN General Assembly resolution 303; 4th Geneva Convention.
Israeli law of return and absentee property law; Jordan unified East Bank and what remains of West Bank (or the River Jordan)
King Abdullah I assassinated in Jerusalem
Israeli army attack and massacre in Gaza
Israeli massacres in Qalqilya, kafr Qaasim and Khan Yunis; tripartite invasion (British, French, Israeli) of Egypt and the Suez crisis
Israeli withdrawal from Sinai (Egyptian) and Gaza
Fateh founded
PLO draft constitution issued at Arab summit in Cairo
PLO founded
Israelis divert the Jordan River; Fateh carries first military operation in Palestine
Israeli massacre in As-Sammu' village
The six-day (June) war; occupation of the rest of Palestine; UN resolution 242; Arab league summit in Khartoum (Sudan)
PFLP (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine) founded; the Karamah battle; PNC (Palestinian National Charter) amended
DFLP (Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine) founded; Israeli arson attack on Al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem; Arafat became PLO chairman
Black September events in Jordan
King Hussein's UAK (United Arab Kingdom) plan
October War (Yom kippur); UN resolution 338; Geneva conference; Palestinian National Salvation Front founded
Rejectionist Front formed; UN and Arab League recognize PLO as sole legitimate representative of the Palestinians; Arafat addresses the UN
PLO granted access to the UNSC; UN General Assembly resolution 3379 (Zionism is a form of racism)
Land Day; West Bank municipal elections (under Israeli occupation)
Begin's (Israeli PM) autonomy plan
National Guidance Committee formed, Israeli invasion of South Lebanon; Camp David Accords (Israeli-Egyptian)
Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty; Int'l Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People declared; UN res. 446, 452 (againstIsraeli settlement policy)
EC's Venice Declaration; Israeli Basic Law on Jerusalem (annexation)
King Fahd plan
Fez, Reagan and Brezhnev plans; Israeli invasion of Lebanon; Sabra and Shatila massacre (Sharon and co.); Palestinian Communist Party founded
Geneva International Conference
War of the camps in Lebanon
The first Intifada
Jordan's disengagement declaration; Hamas (Islamic Resistance Movement) founded; Shultz peace plan; Palestinian Declaration of Independence
Massacres at Iyun Qarah (Rishon LeZion) and Al-Aqsa Mosque
Gulf War; Madrid Conference
Multilateral talks; Israeli Labor Party wins elections
Closure policies begin; Declaration of Principles (Arafat-Rabin-Clinton)
Hebron massacre; Oslo I agreement; PA established
Oslo II agreement; Y. Rabin assassinated by an Israeli.
Palestinian Elections; PLC (Palestinian Legislative Council) formed; Netanyahu (Israeli Likud) comes to power
Hebron agreement; Sh. A Yassin released (in a deal over failed Israeli operation in Jordan)
Wye River memorandum
Sharm el-Sheikh agreement (Wye II or Wye+); end of interim phase (according to Oslo I)
More failed talks over land, Jerusalem and refugees; Sharon's visit to Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem and second Intifada

Created: May, 20, 1995. Last updated: October 2001 Palestine-Net

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